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Flatten the Curve

By Onvacation follow Onvacation   2020 Jul 15, 3:31am 3,573 views   631 comments   watch   nsfw   quote   share    



As the numbers of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths surge to record levels in multiple epicenters, local and state officials are struggling with whether and how much to reverse the rollback of restrictions on individuals and businesses. For example, following a gradual reopening over about a month, on Monday, California Gov. Gavin Newsom announced the reintroduction of statewide restrictions that would again shut down bars, all indoor dining, family entertainment, zoos and museums following a surge in coronavirus cases. The governors of Florida, Texas, and Arizona, all now epicenters of infection, have also slowed or reversed reopening, but their actions have been tepid. Florida Governor Ron DeSantis is even insisting on opening schools in the face of record-high numbers of infections.

These officials would do well to recall the observation of The Great One. No, not Dr. Tony Fauci of the National Institutes of Health—the other one, hockey legend Wayne Gretzky, who once explained, “I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.”

Anticipating what’s coming is important in confronting an infectious disease, especially one whose dynamics are what many infectious disease experts consider their worst nightmare. COVID-19 is highly infectious, has a lengthy incubation period (during which asymptomatic infected persons can unwittingly shed virus and infect other people), and causes serious, sometimes fatal illness.

Those unusual characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, and the idiosyncrasies and spectrum of presentations of the illness—from pulmonary symptoms (including pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis) to a range of non-respiratory manifestations, (including loss of sense of smell or taste, confusion and cognitive impairments, fainting, sudden muscle weakness or paralysis, seizures, ischemic strokes, kidney damage, and, rarely, a severe pediatric inflammatory syndrome) mean that we are on a steep learning curve.

The problem is: if we react too slowly to changing circumstances, we can fall off a metaphorical cliff.

There’s an old brain teaser that perfectly illustrates this point. Consider a pond of a certain size, on which there is a single lily pad. This particular species of lily pad reproduces and duplicates itself once a day, so that on day 2, you have two lily pads. On day 3, you have four; on day 4, you have eight; and so on. Here’s the teaser: if it takes the lily pads 48 days to cover the pond completely, how long will it take for the pond to be covered halfway?

The answer? 47 days. In just 24 hours, between day 47 and day 48, the lily pads would double in size and overtake the pond. Moreover, on day 40, the pond would still appear to be relatively clear; just eight days from the pond being completely covered, you’d hardly know the lily pads were there.

If the same thing happens with a virulent and highly contagious infectious agent, like the SARS-CoV-2 virus, you don’t know you’re in trouble until you wake up one morning to find that you’re overwhelmed. Like the lily pad example, the daily number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in the U.S. was 18,577 on June 15th—just three weeks later, on July 10th, the number had shot up to 66,281.

Dr. Anthony Fauci
Dr. Anthony Fauci

FLATTENING THE CURVE TO BEAT THE IMPENDING CLIFF

From early in the pandemic, the public health mantra worldwide has been: “flatten the curve.” That important concept, which was in vogue several months ago, seems largely forgotten today.

In the above graphic from the University of Michigan, the blue curve is the viral equivalent of the lily pads, suddenly covering the pond. It represents a large number of people (shown on the vertical axis) becoming infected over a short time (horizontal axis), and, in turn, overwhelming our health care system with people who need hospitalization, or even an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

People won’t shop for non-essentials, fly, go to restaurants, theaters, and athletic events, or send their kids to school, when numbers of new cases are soaring.

If, however, political officials, individuals, and communities take steps to slow the virus’s spread, the cases of COVID-19 will stretch out across a more extended period, as depicted by the flatter, yellow curve. As long as the number of cases at any given time doesn’t bleed past the dotted line marking the capacity of our nation’s health care system, we’ll be able to accommodate everyone who is very sick.

Curve-flattening has fallen out of focus in recent months, in part because some political leaders reopened too aggressively and prematurely, basing policy on their constituents’ “pandemic fatigue,” instead of on the advice of epidemiologists and infectious disease experts.

But it’s still critical to avoid the pattern of the blue curve, not only to spare hospitals and ICUs—which are especially under stress in parts of Arizona, Florida, and Texas—but also so that we can continue the gradual reopening of the nation’s businesses and schools. Reopening relies on curve-flattening. As the NIH’s Dr. Tony Fauci says frequently, public health and economic considerations are not in opposition but are opposite sides of the same coin; we can’t fully restart and resume commerce until the pandemic is under some measure of control. People won’t shop for non-essentials, fly, go to restaurants, theaters, and athletic events, or send their kids to school, when numbers of new cases are soaring.

That means we need to start anticipating and stop playing catch-up—as the governors of Florida, Arizona, and Texas have been doing, relying on a combination of magical thinking, Happy Talk, and too-little-too-late remedies, instead of aggressive, evidence-based public health policies.

Arizona Governor Doug Ducey, for instance, has offered no strategy for blunting the spike in COVID-19 cases other than to keep repeating that there were enough hospital beds to treat those who fall ill. And yet, ICU beds and ventilators in use by suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients in Arizona both hit new records on July 12th and were under stress, according to data reported by hospitals to the state.

On July 10th, a physicians group gathered outside Florida Governor DeSantis’s mansion in Tallahassee to urge him to issue an order mandating the use of face masks statewide, which arguably should have been done months ago. Masks have long been considered essential to slowing the spread of COVID-19, but, inexplicably, the Governor resisted. And only on July 10th did Texas Governor Greg Abbott finally mandate the wearing of face masks, and demand the prohibition of large gatherings and the closing of bars across the state.

Elected officials must heed Wayne Gretzky’s admonition and stay ahead of the coronavirus, in order to lower its rate of transmission. That’s the only way to slow the rise of new cases.

Evidence-based policies, such as requiring masks in public, prohibiting large indoor gatherings, and indoor dining at restaurants, are important. But as we’ve seen with California, even aggressive imposition of those kinds of strictures has not been sufficient—in large part because many people, especially younger ones, have failed to comply. As California allowed businesses and public places to reopen, bars, boardwalks, and beaches became crowded with large numbers of maskless patrons. It’s no wonder, then, that as of July 13th, hospitals in the state reported a 27.8% increase in hospitalized patients over the previous 14 days and a 19.9% increase in ICU patients over that same period. In fact, as a result of noncompliance, many local governments in the Golden State have had to coordinate with law enforcement agencies to issue citations and explore civil alternatives through code enforcement, environmental health, or other local government personnel.

Of course, the need for heightened consequences for noncompliance is unfortunate, but it will help to re-flatten the curve. That will spread out the demands on hospitals, which must have sufficient space, supplies, and healthy staff to care for all those who need hospital-level care—whether for COVID-19, a stroke, trauma, emergency surgery, or childbirth. It’s strong, but necessary, medicine—which possibly could have been avoided with more intense efforts to get the public to comply with wearing masks, social distancing, and frequent hand-washing.

If politicians properly understood their role in flattening the curve, they wouldn’t have to resort to policing and ticketing. They would instead launch a tsunami of public service announcements from all manner of dignitaries and celebrities, including prominent politicians, actors, rock stars, and athletes—maybe even The Great One himself—demonstrating how we can anticipate instead of falling behind the curve.

That non-coercive strategy could be a winner.


In this article:Coronavirus, Featured, large
Don't Miss:
For Coronavirus, the Name of the Game Is Minimizing the Probability of Infection.

Written By
Henry I. Miller, M.S., M.D.
Henry I. Miller, a physician and molecular biologist, is a Senior Fellow at the Pacific Research Institute. He was the founding director of the FDA’s Office of Biotechnology.


https://humanevents.com/2020/07/14/flattening-the-curve-is-still-the-right-answer/

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592   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 16, 7:26am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

CBOEtrader says
Karen transplant, who went to the sheriff to taddle on non mask wearers

The vulnerable and scared should hide inside until the vaccine comes out. It's not fair to punish young people so that octogenarians and the immunocompromised can go out.
593   NDrLoR   ignore (1)   2020 Aug 16, 7:37am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

CBOEtrader says
Jefferson, in east Texas
You can't get a part of Texas that is more puritanical, judgmental, holier than thou than East Texas. There must be something in the water. A business partner of my friend in West lives there, owns one of the largest antique malls in town.
594   NDrLoR   ignore (1)   2020 Aug 16, 7:40am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

georgeliberte says
I don't know if I am the only one annoyed by the sanctimonious pathos of this obit.
Typical of East Texas mentality. His wife is "inconsolable"? How about thanking God for 80 years of a good life?
595   MrEd   ignore (3)   2020 Aug 16, 7:41am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

This would work if the young people would stay away from the elderly and immunocompromised when they got home.
But they won't as they see a 401k cashcow and have a legal path to cash in by merely sneezing.
Onvacation says
CBOEtrader says
Karen transplant, who went to the sheriff to taddle on non mask wearers

The vulnerable and scared should hide inside until the vaccine comes out. It's not fair to punish young people so that octogenarians and the immunocompromised can go out.
596   WookieMan   ignore (6)   2020 Aug 16, 7:47am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

MrEd says
But they won't as they see a 401k cashcow

Huh? Damn near half of America has nothing saved. Mom and Dad are broke dude in most cases. You're talking maybe 10-15% have anything saved over $200k in a 401k. Basically nothing remotely close to a cash cow unless you make $20k a year at McDonalds.

Also people with compromised immune systems need to stay home and not have people over. Otherwise it's their fault. Do you go to a peanut factory if you're allergic to peanuts? World can't shut down for your weakness.
597   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 16, 8:16am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

MrEd says
This would work if the young people would stay away from the elderly and immunocompromised when they got home.
But they won't as they see a 401k cashcow and have a legal path to cash in by merely sneezing.
Onvacation says
CBOEtrader says
Karen transplant, who went to the sheriff to taddle on non mask wearers

The vulnerable and scared should hide inside until the vaccine comes out. It's not fair to punish young people so that octogenarians and the immunocompromised can go out.


So we are agreed that the vulnerable should self quarantine?
598   MrEd   ignore (3)   2020 Aug 16, 11:48am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

The oldens will be overpowered by young inheritants seeking a quick legal score.
Onvacation says
So we are agreed that the vulnerable should self quarantine?
599   FuckCCP89   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 16, 12:00pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

MrEd says
The oldens will be overpowered by young inheritants seeking a quick legal score.


If this is a concern let them know that all the money have been bequeathed to charity until covid vaccine is available.
600   MrEd   ignore (3)   2020 Aug 16, 2:50pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

You don't get it.
The oldens want to spend it.
601   FuckCCP89   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 16, 3:40pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

MrEd says
You don't get it.
The oldens want to spend it.


One doesn't preclude another.
602   CBOEtrader   ignore (6)   2020 Aug 16, 8:48pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

NDrLoR says
You can't get a part of Texas that is more puritanical, judgmental, holier than thou than East Texas.


These people were new to east texas. Its an older population with very few productively employed. Its making a comeback in the digital economy though. I went to buy this cabin last week https://www.zillow.com/homedetails/1620-Mcr-3509-Jefferson-TX-75657/2079777575_zpid/ apparently sold but not delisted yet :/
603   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 26, 9:03pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

CBOEtrader says
I went to buy this cabin last week https://www.zillow.com/homedetails/1620-Mcr-3509-Jefferson-TX-75657/2079777575_zpid/ apparently sold but not delisted yet :/


My Grandpa grew up in that part of East Texas. Really more western Louisiana (Don't tell an east Texan I said that.)

Notice if you zoom out the cabin is just northeast of Uncertain Texas. The pics of the lakefront cabin show that it is on stilts. Your first floor garage probably turns into a dock during rainy season.

$80,000. A full acre. Looks like It's still for sale.
604   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Aug 26, 9:04pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

AND when are they going to stop the masquerade and open the schools.

This new normal sucks.
605   MrEd   ignore (3)   2020 Aug 27, 6:38am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

A lot of schools are opening.
Use them as guinea pigs to measure virus spread and parent hospitalizations.
6 weeks out if teachers survive, open em up.
Onvacation says
AND when are they going to stop the masquerade and open the schools.

This new normal sucks.
607   WookieMan   ignore (6)   2020 Aug 27, 7:19am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

MrEd says
A lot of schools are opening.
Use them as guinea pigs to measure virus spread and parent hospitalizations.
6 weeks out if teachers survive, open em up.

Some states/area schools have been open for a couple of weeks. My kids have been a week. There's been more than enough time in those two week plus open schools to see if a kid can be a super spreader. There most certainly has been a kid with Covid that went to school the first day.

My kids also played baseball for 2 months. No masks on parents or kids. 20+ interactions with other kids and parents per game/practice roughly. Parents talking with each other. The league would have shut down if someone got it. No one did. Been to graduation parties. Play volleyball myself twice a week, no masks and we do the good game shit after we're done. A couple trivia nights. Go out to eat at least once a week. Play yard games with the neighbors and have people over to swim once or twice a week. All this with no masks.

I'm starting to believe our death count in off by maybe more than 50% to high given the age of those dying. Covid is there, overall deaths for sure increased over the normal, but this is not some scary Hollywood movie virus situation. Everyone I personally know that's had it doesn't even know they had it. It was a required test for work or something else and boom, they have Covid. What is so scary about a virus that you don't even know you have, infects only ~2% of our entire population, and kills 0.05-0.07% of our population (mostly 70+) in a year?

Kids should be in school. It's a new virus and just like the flu we're all going to get it. Even if you can get it again, we're better off having more people get it. Immune systems are beautiful things if we allow them to do their thing. We're trying to prevent that for some reason. This is all 8th grade science and math at this point. We have almost 6 months of data in the US and I'm sure data from the rest of the world. There's clearly no reason to fear Covid. At least not one that anyone has intelligently presented and caused me fear from it.
609   mell   ignore (6)   2020 Sep 11, 1:37pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

I'm getting older and have had various issues, recently calf/ankle injury playing tennis and running - so kickboxing has to wait for another while but gyms are closed anyways, and now coming back from vacation an ear infection. Covid-19 is not one of them despite flying across the country and having fun on the coast. But maybe they can re-classify me as Covid foot and ear, that makes 2 new cases at once. Let's shut everything down again and wear your useless masks! Actually the N-100 mask is pretty useful right now after coming back, not so much for Covid but for the ash and fallout from the forest fires which will hopefully clear within the next few days. Flatten!The!Curve!
610   Shaman   ignore (2)   2020 Sep 11, 2:03pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

@mell
I used to get ear infections all the time. That ended when I learned that most can be prevented/cured with a few dropper drops of 25% vinegar couple times a day.
611   mell   ignore (6)   2020 Sep 11, 2:18pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Shaman says
@mell
I used to get ear infections all the time. That ended when I learned that most can be prevented/cured with a few dropper drops of 25% vinegar couple times a day.


Thanks! I may try that. I don't get them too often but I have a lot of fluid and ear-wax build-up. Once a year the ENT may have to remove it or I have to extensively use h2o2, but even that gets trapped lol. I'm happy to have yet another solution to give a try. But all that Covid testing is totally interfering with your ability to see an MD about things that actually do bug you. I can totally see more people getting harmed (and even dying) unnecessarily with those bullshit Covid rules. When the optometrists started with the Covid bullshit I switched to Costco optometry, best decision ever (and so much faster and cheaper). This hysteria has to stop.
612   WookieMan   ignore (6)   2020 Sep 11, 2:23pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

mell says
I'm getting older and have had various issues, recently calf/ankle injury playing tennis and running

Fractured my heel this past weekend. Fuck this. Day 5 and this is miserable. Not pain, just getting around one legged and not putting weight at all on my hurt foot. I understand ADA requirements now a lot more. Minorl tasks now take 3-4x's as long. Just getting on the toilet is a struggle and I could still come close to dunking a basketball before the injury as a 6'2" white guy. So I have strength in the legs. Tip - Wear shoes for ALL activities. Not the beach obviously, but pretty much everything else, just wear some damn shoes.

TL:DR - I'd rather have Covid than a broken heel, lol.
613   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Sep 15, 6:23pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Here in California we are adapting to the new normal.

Our governor is an evil corrupt idiot.

I keep my months old blue exam mask on the truck's console in case I need to go into a store or restaurant for pickup.

The schools are talking about letting half the kids come back for 2 days every other week while they continue to teach online. They are also talking about staying online until June.

The hoops have been removed from the backboards at the local park.

People are wearing masks while driving alone on the freeway.

Protests and peaceful riots are running out of fuel, literally.

Two weeks have now stretched out to six months with no real reopening metric other than implementation of the green new deal.

Fuck the new normal. I want to go bowling.
614   just_passing_through   ignore (7)   2020 Sep 15, 6:52pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

WookieMan says
Fractured my heel this past weekend. Fuck this. Day 5 and this is miserable. Not pain, just getting around one legged and not putting weight at all on my hurt foot. I understand ADA requirements now a lot more. Minorl tasks now take 3-4x's as long. Just getting on the toilet is a struggle and I could still come close to dunking a basketball before the injury as a 6'2" white guy. So I have strength in the legs. Tip - Wear shoes for ALL activities. Not the beach obviously, but pretty much everything else, just wear some damn shoes.


Sucks man! When you are a kid it's actually 2 bones. I played too many sports and fucked mine up. They weren't fusing right. I had to lay off for awhile and then they were as good as new. You will be too. They tried to make me wear some damn shoe insert but that didn't last long.
615   just_passing_through   ignore (7)   2020 Sep 15, 6:55pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Shaman says
@mell
I used to get ear infections all the time. That ended when I learned that most can be prevented/cured with a few dropper drops of 25% vinegar couple times a day.


All of us whiteys have the gene for 'wet' earwax. Asians have a different version for 'dry' earwax. I wonder if they have those issues.
616   mell   ignore (6)   2020 Sep 15, 6:58pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

just_adhom_preaching says
Shaman says
@mell
I used to get ear infections all the time. That ended when I learned that most can be prevented/cured with a few dropper drops of 25% vinegar couple times a day.


All of us whiteys have the gene for 'wet' earwax. Asians have a different version for 'dry' earwax. I wonder if they have those issues.


Have to go to the ENT once every 2 years at the minimum to get it removed. I'm trying to use the softener regarly now and clean it out as he was busy for 15 minutes yesterday with the vacuum and it's not terribly pleasant. He says there's no medication or thing you can do. Just clean it out when it's time, genetics. Well I defeated my tennis leg/calf, swollen ankle amd ear covid. There's still hope unless Biden wins ;)
619   georgeliberte   ignore (0)   2020 Nov 20, 7:52am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Probably the best summary I have seen of scientific and Constitutional issues.
I only know two people who claim to know someone who has died of COVID; both 'D"s. My family through blood and marriage spans Asia an North America is without deaths.
620   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Nov 20, 8:16am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

It's getting frantic in California. People are wearing masks out in the field or while driving alone.

I hear about sick people but not about dying people.
622   mell   ignore (6)   2020 Nov 20, 10:06am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Onvacation says
It's getting frantic in California. People are wearing masks out in the field or while driving alone.

I hear about sick people but not about dying people.


The leftoids are in a contest about who can blow fauxci best.
623   Ceffer   ignore (4)   2020 Nov 20, 11:07am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

People, like the fake news panic mongers, like to use Covid as a blame magnet for whatever deaths occur. They fail to make the distinctions of dying 'with' Covid as opposed to dying 'of' Covid, or to acknowledge that a lot of 'with' Covid are false positive.

Blame magnets can be a side effect of litigiousness and failure of personal responsibility or accepting the whims of Nature. If you can 'blame' somebody or something, you might sue and get a windfall out of it.

I'm surprised at how many people in California jump to 'Oh, you can sue for that.' when having conversations about the crap that comes down the pike from life.

'Hey, can I sue over Covid?'
624   WookieMan   ignore (6)   2020 Nov 20, 10:20pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Onvacation says
It's getting frantic in California. People are wearing masks out in the field or while driving alone.

IL is the same way. Shutting down everything right now. Just got back into town from Mexico. If one were to believe Covid is dangerous, why is Mexico doing a better job at their airports versus USA? Just walked out of MDW from a foreign country. Nothing.

And it’s on the states. Somehow US territories do temp checks without federal aid, but states can’t. I don’t want any of it, but it’s interesting. The only main difference between a state and territory is House and Senate votes that count. So govs like Pritzker and Newsome are clearly just fucking with people.

As Ceffer says the whole with or because of covid is a huge distinction. My moms friends just died with covid, but that was because she had lung cancer and was mid 70’s. She was close to death regardless. The only young person I know that had a bad covid bout was a heavy pot smoker and overweight. Even then his symptoms sounded like regular flu. It sucks. You lay in bed, hydrate and rest. He also had to stop smoking. He’s also a bit of a drama queen. Otherwise the dozen or so I know that have/had it said it was a headache, achy and being tired IF they knew they had it. Most were asymptomatic.
625   just_passing_through   ignore (7)   2020 Nov 20, 11:17pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Ceffer says
'Hey, can I sue over Covid?'


Apparently yes, there is some German guy who is suing the world over covid.
626   APOCALYPSEFUCKisShostakovitch   ignore (60)   2020 Nov 21, 5:18am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Domestic violence is God's way of civilizing women who are FREE! to carry a gun, God's way of moderating natural murderous impulses of men.
627   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Nov 26, 9:45am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Wave two! Another two week lock down coming your way!

WE MUST FLATTEN THE CURVE!! you don't want to kill gran'ma at t'giving do you? no, ya don't.
628   Dbr6   ignore (0)   2020 Nov 26, 9:48am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Onvacation says
Wave two! Another two week lock down coming your way!

followed by wave 3, 4, 5,....n
629   FuckCCP89   ignore (5)   2020 Nov 26, 10:39am     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

just_passing_through says
there is some German guy who is suing the world over covid.


Why the world and not the real culprit - fucking China?
630   APOCALYPSEFUCKisShostakovitch   ignore (60)   2020 Nov 26, 12:25pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

THE VACCINE IS A DRUG TO MAKE YOU GAY!, FUCK YOUR PETS! AND VOTE BIDEN!
631   Onvacation   ignore (5)   2020 Nov 28, 8:09pm     ↓ dislike (0)   quote   flag      

Onvacation says
Peak deaths happened months ago. Months before the current mandatory masking, mostly to NY and NJ residents, and mostly to immunocompromised and old people.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid19/index.htm

https://data.cdc.gov/NCHS/Provisional-COVID-19-Death-Counts-by-Sex-Age-and-S/9bhg-hcku

Millions of small businesses have closed. Concerts, sports, and worst of all schools are being closed. We are reverting to a primitive lifestyle where we only go out to get food and bring it back to our cave. Trillions more dollars have been created out of thin air to give to big (not small) business and non working people.

The curve is flat. Please stop the bullshit.

Deaths from covid among those less than 30 years old now total 1161. An additional 10,658 died aged 30 to 50.

So we have shutdown the country, ruined countless small businesses, deprived children of education and sports, and allowed the communists to steal the election for less than 12,000 dead young people.

Stop the bullshit.

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